BIOLUMINESCENCE

Light from a living plant or animal is called bioluminescence, or cold light, to distinguish it from incandescence, or heat generating light. Life forms could not produce incandescent light without being burned. Their light is produced by chemicals combining in such a way that little or no measurable heat is produced, and the life forms generating it are unharmed. Although bioluminescence is a relatively complicated process, it can be reduced to simple terms. Living light occurs when luciferin and oxygen combine in the presence of luciferase. In a few cases, fireflies the most commons, an additional compound called ATP is required.
The earliest recorded experiments with bioluminescence in the late 1800s are attributed to Raphael Dubois, who extracted a luminous fluid from a clam, observing that it continued to glow in the test tube for several minutes. He named the substance luciferin, which means “the bearer of light.” In further research, Dubois discovered that several chemicals were required for bioluminescence to occur. In his notes, it was recorded that a second important substance, which he called luciferase, was always present. In later studies of small, luminous sea creatures, Newton Harvey concluded that luciferin was composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which are the building blocks of all living cells. He also proved that there are a variety of luciferins and luciferases, specific to the plants and animals that produce them.
Much remains unknown, but many scientists who are studying bioluminescence now believe that the origin of the phenomenon may be traced to a time when there was no oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere. When oxygen was gradually introduced into the atmosphere, it was actually poisonous to life forms. Plants and animals produced light to use up the oxygen in a gradual but necessary adaptation. It is speculated that millions of years ago, all life may have produced light to survive. As the millennia passed, life forms on Earth became tolerant of, and finally dependent on oxygen, and the adaptation that produced bioluminescence was no longer necessary, but some primitive plants and animals continued to use the light for new functions such as mating or attracting prey.

TAKEN FROM BARON TOEFL EXERCISES

Maroon 5 Short Biography

Maroon 5 is an American pop rock band that originated in Los Angeles, California. The group was formed in 1994 as Kara’s Flowers while its members were still in high school and originally consisted of Adam Levine (lead vocals, guitar), Jesse Carmichael (guitar, backing vocals) Mickey Madden (bass guitar) and Ryan Dusick (drums). The band, which self-released an album called We Like Digging?, was named after a girl the group had a crush on. They signed to Reprise Records and released an album, The Fourth World, in 1997. After a tepid response to the album, the band parted ways with the record label and the members attended college.

In 2001, the band regrouped, with guitarist James Valentine added to the line-up, and pursued a new direction under the name Maroon 5.At this point, Carmichael switched to playing keyboards, which has since become his main instrument in the band. After these changes, Maroon 5 signed with Octone Records and released their debut album, Songs About Jane, in June 2002. The album’s lead single, “Harder to Breathe”, received heavy airplay, which helped the album to debut at number six on the Billboard 200 chart.The band won the Grammy Award for Best New Artist in 2005. For the next few years, they toured extensively worldwide in support of Songs About Jane and produced two live recordings: 2004’s 1.22.03.Acoustic and 2005’s Live – Friday the 13th. In 2006, Dusick officially left Maroon 5 after suffering from serious wrist and shoulder injuries and was replaced by Matt Flynn. The band then recorded their second album, It Won’t Be Soon Before Long and released it in May 2007. The album reached number one on the US Billboard 200 chart and the lead single, “Makes Me Wonder”, became the band’s first number-one single on the Billboard Hot 100.

In September 2010, Maroon 5 released their third studio album Hands All Over, which was re-released in 2011 to include the single “Moves like Jagger”. While the original version of the album received mixed reviews, “Moves like Jagger” reached the number one position on the Billboard Hot 100. The band released their fourth album, Overexposed, on June 26, 2012. All four singles of the album were highly successful on the Billboard Hot 100, including second single “One More Night”, which reached number one. In 2014, the band signed with Interscope Records and released their fifth studio album, V, with the very-first line-up of six official band members, as keyboardist and backing vocalist PJ Morton became an official member in 2012. The same year, a longtime friend of the band and bass player of Phantom Planet, Sam Farrar, became an official touring member, performing the keyboards with Carmichael and Morton. The album debuted atop the Billboard 200. Maroon 5 has sold more than 23 million albums and 109 million singles worldwide.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maroon_5